Evolving Geopolitics and Security Dynamics in the Indian Ocean Region: An Analytical Overview


  • Usman Anwar Lahore Leads University
  • DSP Muhammad Rizwan Yousaf University of Sargodha
  • Dr. Zakir Hussain Assistant Professor, Lahore Leads University, Lahore.




Indian Ocean Region (IOR), Security Architecture, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), Security and Growth in the Region (SAGAR), Maritime Silk Road (MSR).


The political and security landscape of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) is changing, giving it greater strategic significance. China's regional policy and Belt and Road Initiative pose a threat to existing powers, and India's changing approach in the Indo-Pacific region (IOR) is a reflection of worries about China's economic impact and ascent. With programs like the Act East plan, outreach into the western Indian Ocean, and the Security and Growth in the Area (SAGAR) framework, India is demonstrating its leadership. This emphasizes the viewpoints that are often ignored in international geopolitics.

The third-largest ocean in the world, the Indian Ocean, is a vital center for international trade and geopolitics. It is home to important chokepoints for trade and the movement of energy, such as the Straits of Hormuz and Malacca. Important factors include cultural variety, environmental concerns, and marine security, with the US, China, and India vying for influence. It continues to be strategically important due to its rich cultural legacy, continuous regional organizations, a combination of economic prospects, and geopolitical concerns.

Global politics and trade are changing as a result of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), especially the Maritime Silk Road (MSR) in the Indian Ocean area (IOR). It improves value chains, trade, and connectivity but also presents obstacles, most notably the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). India attempts to impose regional leadership and balance off China's influence, and this has a significant geopolitical impact on its approach to maritime administration. However, because it limits the focus on governance operations, creates bureaucratic obstacles, and opposes Chinese collaboration, this policy makes it more difficult for India to handle important maritime governance challenges.

The study will look into the strategies and security concerns of the countries around the western Indian Ocean, including India's security partnerships and its strategic objectives. Along with examining US efforts to retain influence in the developing IOR which is shifting from US dominance in conventional security to a multilateral balance, it will also examine China's ambitions and India's quest for a new order. It is anticipated that conventional security patterns will not change despite these changes. Natural disasters, terrorism, piracy, and climate change are examples of non-traditional security threats that still exist in the Indian Ocean Region, even in places where these threats are on the decline.


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How to Cite

Anwar, U., Yousaf , D. M. R. ., & Hussain , D. Z. . . (2024). Evolving Geopolitics and Security Dynamics in the Indian Ocean Region: An Analytical Overview . Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies, 4(1), 210–242. https://doi.org/10.58932/MULG0037