Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies <p>J-NESS is an interdisciplinary academic pursuit to disseminate the awareness and information on the importance of our aquatic channels and resources. The purpose of this effort is to bring attention to the latest topics of discussion at international level, e.g. Sustainable Development of Coastal Indigenous Communities, Blue Economy, Maritime Security and Surveillance, Circular Economy, Marine Renewable Energy, Maritime Transport and Coastal Tourism, Fisheries and Aquaculture, and related geopolitical and geo-economic dimensions.</p> en-US (Dr. Uzma Naz) (Mr. Muhammad Asad (Centre for Research and Development)) Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Fish as a Healthy Source of Human Nutrition: An Exploratory Study <p><em>This study posits that fishery industry has an important role in the economy globally and is performing two functions – economic development and food production. The production of fish primarily occurs through two main methods: capture fishing, where commercial exploitation of the wild stocks occurs, and culture fishery, which is known as aquaculture and is the process of fish breeding in controlled environment. One of the broadest classifications for fish are finfish and shellfish; the latter provide many vital nutrients and play an important role in global food security. Fish is perhaps the main source of food with high nutritional value that has an abundance of high-quality protein, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals yet is a low-fat food. On top of that, it is proving to be a great choice for those that want to remain in the healthy weight category as well as those that are in the process of shedding their excess weight. The protein contained in fish is highly absorbable and comes with good amounts of both essential and non-essential amino acids that are critically needed for the body's well-being. This study is having an exploratory to present the data combined with observations and facts based on content analysis.</em></p> Prof Dr Sajid Mehmood Shahzad Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of Work Environment and Employee Performance in Maritime Industry Study of National Association of Government Approved Freight Forwarders <p><em>This study compared the relationship between work environment and employee performance within the maritime industry, focusing on National Association of Government Approved Freight Forwarders (NAGAFF) members operating at Tincan Island Seaport and Apapa Wharf Seaport in Nigeria. Employing a mixed-methods approach, the research utilized primary data collected. The study identified significant differences between the two seaports. Findings reveals that Tincan Island Seaport </em><em>shows was </em><em>more conducive work environment, characterized by stronger collaboration, skill development opportunities, and employee recognition Additionally, Tincan Island Seaport boasts a more efficient and user-friendly E-transaction system, contributing to streamlined processes and reduced errors. This finding highlights the growing significance of technological advancements in enhancing operational effectiveness within the maritime sector. Furthermore, the study underscored the crucial role of organizational culture and leadership in shaping employee commitment. Tincan Island Seaport's perceived positive culture and effective leadership practices were associated with higher employee commitment, reinforcing established theories on their impact. Finally, the study acknowledged the influence of environmental initiatives on employee satisfaction, with Tincan Island Seaport's efforts in this regard contributing more positively to employees' well-being. This study provides valuable insights into the complex interplay between work environment, E-transaction systems, organizational culture, environmental initiatives, and employee performance within the maritime industry. </em></p> Dr. Lawal, Kamaldeen A.A, Alimi Shakirat Adeoye, Dr. Kaltume Mohammed Kamselem, Dr. Wonah Lovely Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Pakistan and Indian Ocean Region Geopolitics: Strategies and Counter Strategies <p><em>Pakistan's strategies and counter strategies in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) are influenced by various factors such as geographical context, economic linkages, and changing threat perceptions. The IOR is considered crucial due to its oil and gas reserves, choke points, and nautical traffic, attracting the interests of major powers like the USA, China, and India. China's presence in the IOR has increased through initiatives like the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Pakistan and China have developed mutually beneficial cooperation in the IOR. As far as India’s increased maritime influence is concerned it poses challenges and requires Pakistan to upgrade its naval potential, establish strategic cooperation with China, and focus on Blue Economy to counter the maritime strategy of India which imposes a severe threat to Pakistan’s presence in the IOR. This research paper examines India’s maritime partnerships in the IOR, and countermeasures taken by Pakistan to restrict the Indian influence in the IOR.</em></p> Prof. Dr. Shabnam Gul, Hira Shakir Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 US-China Strategic Rivalry in Asia Pacific: Opportunities and Challenges for Regional States <p><em>The twenty-first century is the Asian century. The US, the superpower of the world, and China, the rising power are tilting towards the Asia Pacific region. Both powers are engaged in a power struggle to secure their respective national interests in the region. The study aims to analyze the power politics between the US and China, their interests and strategies in the region, and the response of Asia-Pacific states to the US-China rivalry. The opportunities and challenges for regional states due to US-China rivalry and engagement in the region are analyzed in terms of economic, political, and social. The US is utilizing its strategic tools to maintain its sole superpower status, while rising China pursues to enhance its influence, initially in Asia Pacific and then around the globe. Neo-realists propound the thesis that the changing dynamics of the international system urge states to compete with each other. Neorealism rightly explains the US-China rivalry in Asia Pacific. The primary data was gathered from subject experts through an interview questionnaire. The secondary data was collected from books, articles, reports, and dissertations. The results show that the US is hindering the rise of China and the latter is challenging the former, through building alliances with regional states in the economic, military, and social domains. Some of the regional countries are inclined towards the US, and others are prone towards China. Based on the data collected it has been recommended that all countries should maintain a delicate balance between both major powers because in today’s globalized world of interdependence, not any state can afford complete disengagement from the other. The great power politics and US-China rivalry will continue for decades to come.</em></p> Sumbal Tausif, Khushboo Ejaz Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Technological Advancement and Pakistan’s Maritime Security Strategy in the Indo-Pacific Ocean Region: Challenges and Prospects <p><em>The Indo-Pacific Ocean Region (IPOR) is one of the busiest oceanic spaces for trade, commerce, and other socioeconomic activities besides political and military interests. The region faces increased maritime security threats due to modernization and shifting capabilities of rational actors in terms of technology, making security provision is a challenging task for the states. Pakistan is situated in the Indo-Pacific Ocean Region (IPOR) at very prime coordinates due to which its importance for safe navigation and uninterrupted global flows becomes crucial. Pakistan’s role and its efforts in ensuring security within its maritime zones make it inevitable for its survival. However, technological advancements including IOT, blockchain, artificial intelligence, advanced cyber security, robotics and automation, monitoring systems, artificial and augmented intelligence, cloud and SaaS, autonomous ships, green shipping are speculated as increasingly grave threats to developing states. The objectives of the research are to highlight the technological advancements in the maritime sector, to describe the emerging challenges and futuristic trends in IPOR, to define the technological advancements as threats to all developing states including Pakistan, to enhance the maritime security strategy of Pakistan, and to recommend maritime security policy directions for Pakistan. The qualitative research methodology used in this case study. Data has been collected from secondary includes books and research articles, and tertiary resources which are official websites of supreme institutions. The argument is being established in the context of realist approach further following analytical and descriptive approaches.</em></p> Laraib Ali, Maliha Zeba Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Maritime Security Challenges in the Indian Ocean: Australia’s Maritime Security amid the Sandison’s Vulnerability <p><em>The 21<sup>st</sup> century is the “century of seas” and increasingly recognizes the maritime security and stability of states that are directly or indirectly connected to maritime interest projection. This research examines the maritime security concept and Australia's position in the Indo-Pacific region especially in the Indian Ocean. It also analyzes Australia’s partnership with India and Indonesia to secure and maintain sea control over key strategic chokepoints, islands, and overseas territories against the defiance of its rivals. In a follow up, Australia’s strategic partnerships are also viewed in tandem to China's increasing regional ties with Indian Ocean littoral states through the Belt and Road Initiative and its continued military modernization in the region creating a non-permissive area for other states. Additionally, this research provides insight into Australia's potential role as a central player in the evolving Indo-Pacific region and the way it will create a deterrent effect to its “Sandison vulnerability”.</em></p> Ayesha Imtiaz, Dr. Muhammad Shareh Qazi Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Sino-Indian Port Politics in the Indian Ocean Region <p><em>This study evaluates the extent of Sino-India port politics in the Indian Ocean and its implications on the region. China, under the umbrella of BRI has started investing in ports of littoral Indian Ocean countries such as Pakistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Djibouti, Iran etc. India has been accusing China of encircling it though these projects.&nbsp; Since the commencement of BRI, Chinese and Indian presence has increased at key ports on major trade routes and surveillance points. The Indian national interests have been hurt by the Chinese investments in the port sector of Indian Ocean littoral countries. As counter measures, Indian has taken steps to revive its maritime policy, improve ties with global powers through QUAD alliance, foundational agreements with US, investments in ports of countries like Iran, Oman, Seychelles, Mauritius etc. and improving its navy and naval facilities. Sino Indian competition for resources and influence will have implications for the whole region. As the quest for energy increases between the two countries the economic integration will also increase in the region as compared to the past, especially through BRI projects. This can also result in the militarization of the Indian Ocean as both countries have increased investments in their respective naval forces. There is a need to find common ground so that the region can benefit and not face further problems.</em></p> Maheen Butt, Dr. Qudsia Akram Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evolving Geopolitics and Security Dynamics in the Indian Ocean Region: An Analytical Overview <p><em>The political and security landscape of the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) is changing, giving it greater strategic significance. China's regional policy and Belt and Road Initiative pose a threat to existing powers, and India's changing approach in the Indo-Pacific region (IOR) is a reflection of worries about China's economic impact and ascent. With programs like the Act East plan, outreach into the western Indian Ocean, and the Security and Growth in the Area (SAGAR) framework, India is demonstrating its leadership. This emphasizes the viewpoints that are often ignored in international geopolitics. </em></p> <p><em>The third-largest ocean in the world, the Indian Ocean, is a vital center for international trade and geopolitics. It is home to important chokepoints for trade and the movement of energy, such as the Straits of Hormuz and Malacca. Important factors include cultural variety, environmental concerns, and marine security, with the US, China, and India vying for influence. It continues to be strategically important due to its rich cultural legacy, continuous regional organizations, a combination of economic prospects, and geopolitical concerns. </em></p> <p><em>Global politics and trade are changing as a result of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), especially the Maritime Silk Road (MSR) in the Indian Ocean area (IOR). It improves value chains, trade, and connectivity but also presents obstacles, most notably the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). India attempts to impose regional leadership and balance off China's influence, and this has a significant geopolitical impact on its approach to maritime administration. However, because it limits the focus on governance operations, creates bureaucratic obstacles, and opposes Chinese collaboration, this policy makes it more difficult for India to handle important maritime governance challenges.</em></p> <p><em>The study will look into the strategies and security concerns of the countries around the western Indian Ocean, including India's security partnerships and its strategic objectives. Along with examining US efforts to retain influence in the developing IOR which is shifting from US dominance in conventional security to a multilateral balance, it will also examine China's ambitions and India's quest for a new order. It is anticipated that conventional security patterns will not change despite these changes. Natural disasters, terrorism, piracy, and climate change are examples of non-traditional security threats that still exist in the Indian Ocean Region, even in places where these threats are on the decline.</em></p> Usman Anwar, DSP Muhammad Rizwan Yousaf , Dr. Zakir Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Sun, 30 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000