Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS <p>J-NESS is an interdisciplinary academic pursuit to disseminate the awareness and information on the importance of our aquatic channels and resources. The purpose of this effort is to bring attention to the latest topics of discussion at international level, e.g. Sustainable Development of Coastal Indigenous Communities, Blue Economy, Maritime Security and Surveillance, Circular Economy, Marine Renewable Energy, Maritime Transport and Coastal Tourism, Fisheries and Aquaculture, and related geopolitical and geo-economic dimensions.</p> en-US jness@mul.edu.pk (Dr. Uzma Naz) crd@mul.edu.pk (Centre for Research and Development) Mon, 22 Jan 2024 08:30:50 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.5 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Emerging Contour of Human Security: A Case Study of COVID 19 Impact on Tourism Policies https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/390 <p>The advent of COVID-19 has emerged as a preeminent global non-traditional security threat in the 21st century, posing multifaceted challenges to the security and economic well-being of human communities worldwide. This research seeks to highlight the intricate nexus between the human security implications engendered by the transmission of the coronavirus and its consequential devastating impact on the global tourism industry—a domain notably underexplored in scholarly literature. COVID 19 was one of the most challenging human security threats in our times which had negative impacts on human security and raised pertinent concerns about the issues of health safety while tourism in an era ridden with the paranoia of the pandemic. Tourism is one of the many sectors which was severely damaged by the human security threats emanating from the precarity of the global pandemic situation. However, many countries developed and implemented unique and practical tourism policies which proved successful in tackling the challenges posed by the COVID-19. A critical examination of the innovative policies implemented by New Zealand, Australia, Belize, China, the UK, and Pakistan underscores the essential principles of empowerment and protection required for pragmatic and human-centric policymaking in the post-COVID era. The findings emphasise the need to employ the principles of adaptability, flexibility, innovation, diversity, community engagement, health and safety protocol implementation, utilization of digital platforms for marketing, infrastructure investment, collaborative endeavours, and research-informed decision-making to formulate sustainable and resilient tourism policies in the aftermath of the COVID-19 milieu.</p> Prof. Dr. Iram Khalid, Dr. Asia Mukhtar, Arooj Naveed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/390 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Resurgence of TTP and ISK: A Daunting Challenge to Pakistan's Counterterrorism Strategy https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/336 <p><em>The militant groups exploiting the name of the religion have long been a challenge for Pakistan's security. The appearance and disappearance of such violent groups in Pakistan illustrates how the religious militancy creates a daunting challenge for stability of the country. This study aims to examine the resumption of violent activities of Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and Islamic State Khorasan (ISK) in Pakistan and how it severely impacted on Pakistan's counter terrorism strategy in 2020-2023. The article highlights various post 2020 contributing factors such the role of resumption of Afghan Taliban’s government in Afghanistan and re-emergence of TTP and the rise of ISK with devastating anti-Pakistan politico-militancy driven agenda seemingly successful in presence of weak governance and political instability in Pakistan. The article argues that the state needs to adopt a comprehensive strategy that addresses the root causes of religious militancy, issues related to a stable governance, and effective counter-terrorism policies to combat the reorganization of the militant groups with clearly spelt out roadmap of a long-term rehabilitation strategy for those laying down arms and renouncing violence.</em></p> Dr. Arshad Mahmood, Dr. Syed Sibtain Hussain Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/336 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Post-Covid Scenario of Container Market: Impact of The Scarcity of Empty Shipping Containers Over High Prices of Commodities In the Global Supply Chain Environment https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/293 <p>Seaborne trade, particularly containerized trade, was expected to suffer a significant decline at the outbreak of the coronavirus of the 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to the reason that supply chains are obliged to import various items and resources from China to meet consumer demand for commodities such as medical equipment, home office supplies, and computer equipment. As China recovered from months of trade suspension, an imbalance was developed, with the country sending around three containers for every one imported. Furthermore, the container crisis reflects a slowdown and delays in the maritime supply chain because of pandemic-related strains, such as port labor shortages, port congestion (also due to blank sailings), and capacity constraints in the truck and other inland transportation systems. Due to a lack of empty containers, backlog at ports resulted in freight prices surpassing record highs by the end of 2020 and early in 2021. The surge in freight prices was felt in various developing countries, including Africa and Latin America. As a result, shipping and container rates skyrocketed, resulting in prolonged delays for businesses, the total cost of ownership (TOC), and thus the price of commodities. Therefore, this paper emphasizes over repercussions of constraints on the whole maritime supply chain and propose measures for dealing with potential future container shortage.</p> Shahrukh Zohaib, Dr. Asif Inam, Mrs. Atiya Jan Muhammad Silat Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/293 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pakistan's Strategic Imperatives and Maritime Security Challenges in the Indian Ocean https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/339 <p><em>Sea Lines of Communications, or SLOCs, have become an epicenter of strategic dispositions and partnerships in Southeast Asia. This research focuses on superpower influence in the region and how it ranges from securing islands within the Indian and Pacific Oceans to securitizing nontraditional elements of national power such as semiconductors and political alignments. This research also measures the impact of these measures and how they have indicated a change in basic assumptions in littoral states in the region like Pakistan, India, and China. The research analyses the strategies of these states towards their maritime relevance and interests in the region. Economic posturing and military modernization drive are supplemented by strategies specifically designed to address maritime vulnerabilities and opportunities in SLOCs. India’s Security and Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR) strategy, coupled with its naval deployments in the islands of the Indian Ocean, is one example. China-Pakistan-India submarine modernization initiatives and Indo-US Quadrilateral Security Commitments are some of the key elements this research scrutinizes. The research suggests that due to new strategies and the role of extra-regional players, Pakistan’s position in the region requires a deeper and thorough reassessment of its naval strategies beyond the traditional lens. It also recommends seeking a bigger, more pronounced role in SLOC politics of the Indian Ocean and even considering developing contingencies to prevent a spillover of strategic competition from the Pacific Ocean contenders.</em></p> Irfan Farooq, Dr. Muhammad Shareh Qazi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/339 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 China's Conflict Management Approach Towards Africa: Evidence from Darfur https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/330 <p><em>China has become a significant player in Africa, with extensive economic and political interests. As such, its approach to managing conflicts in Africa has significant regional stability and global security implications. This paper examines how China's investments in Africa contribute to issues by analyzing the transfer of Chinese-made weaponry to Sudan to secure crude to protect its domestic interests. Some academics in international relations view the development of Sino-African relations as an indicator of the foundation upon which China's larger strategic goals are constructed. In addition to economic benefits, China has governmental, security, and sociopolitical interests in Africa. This rapidly developing relationship offers China and Africa both opportunities and challenges. Primarily, China's trade, investment, and infrastructure development assistance are reshaping African markets. However, the expansion of China poses a challenge to the international balance of power. Specifically, the United States views Africa as famous for its investments, expertise, calm, and hospitality. Moreover, contentious issues are straining these relationships. Africa was a victim of Western colonialism and "strings attached" methods. The "Strings-attached" methodology is employed by "quasi-state" actors. Most African leaders frequently criticize it for interfering with the internal affairs of a few African states and making the continent dependent on foreign-aid support.</em></p> Dr. Assad Mehmood Khan, Dr. Uzma Naz, Dr. Syed Waqas Haider Bukhari Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/330 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Physical and Human Capital Spending on Labour Productivity in Nigeria Maritime Sector (1985 – 2022) https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/335 <p><em>It is evidenced from the available data that labour productivity in Nigeria Maritime Sector has generally recorded an abysmally low rate over the years. In addition to this, it is also revealed that much has not been invested by government on human capital and physical infrastructures in the country over the same period. In recent years, the Nigerian government increased her expenditure on education, health care services and infrastructures such as road constructions and within the same period, there was a marginal increase in labour productivity in Nigeria Maritime Sector. This research study uses Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) method to provide an econometric assessment of the subject matter. This study does so by ascertaining the relationship between these two forms of government spending and labour productivity and analyzing their impact on other macroeconomic variables such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita income. Overall findings reveal that in the long run, human and physical capital spending is an important determinant of labour productivity, which will in turn, impact positively on the performance of Nigerian economy. While increase in government total expenditure on education not backed up by corresponding investment in real capital project and power sector development will impact its labour productivity negatively with its attendant effect on the economy.</em></p> Dr. Lawal Kamaldeen A. A. , Prof. Dr. Mufutau Akanmu Popoola, Jimoh Olayinka AJAYI, Ajala Basirat Bolanle, Kowo Solomon Akpoviroro Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/335 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Major Powers’ Interests in IOR And Implications for the Region https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/340 <p><em>Geo-economics and geopolitics are the indicators of competition between the supreme powers in the track of their deliberate goals. The US, China, and India together make up about half of the world's GDP and are vying for dominance in the Indian Ocean. In this perspective, while being smaller than Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, Indian Ocean Region continues to be crucial because of its enormous oil and gas reserves, choke points, nautical traffic, and the interests of foreign powers. The IMF predicted Global growth is now expected to fall from 3.4 percent in 2022 to 2.8 percent this year, The US and Europe are heading for recession, and the Asian economic situation is better, China and India will be major engine of growth this year. Therefore, Indian Ocean will remain the focus of attention for the world. New alliances are taking place in which US and India are the key players, the sole aim being is to contain China. On the other end, China’s presence in Indian Ocean is increased in the last decade due to BRI/CPEC and military base in Djibouti. Chinese Navy is regularly patrolling and exercising with the littoral countries of the Indian Ocean. This paper endeavours to study major powers’ interests in IOR and how developing a strategic alliance requires Pakistan to be vigilant and adopt a strategy to safeguard its interests.</em></p> Syed Kamran Hamid Hashmi, Babar Bilal Haider, Iram Zahid Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/340 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Evolving Dynamics of Pakistan-Afghanistan Relations under the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA) Regime: A Comprehensive Analysis and Prospects https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/337 <p><em>This research examines the intricacies of the bilateral relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan in the aftermath of the Taliban's assumption of power in August 2021. The study emphasises the impact of regional and global factors on the dynamics of their relationship and the evolving security landscape in Afghanistan under the Taliban. A significant concern looming within Pakistan’s strategic community is the possible future trajectory of relations. To answer this geopolitical riddle, the study uses a scenario analysis framework. The study finds that Pakistan-Afghanistan concerns can go in one of three possible directions: cooperation, hostility, and coexistence. The study produces valuable insights based on scenario methodology while challenging existing assumptions. It would help policymakers to preempt policy decisions in an informed manner to propose practical policy recommendations for peaceful coexistence. Consequently encouraging pragmatism, negotiations, inclusive political settlements, collaborative efforts to address security challenges, and economic integration through regional connectivity enterprises. &nbsp;&nbsp;The significance of regional and global collaboration in ensuring the prosperity and security of Afghanistan and the broader region is highlighted through comprehensive insights and actionable policy recommendations &nbsp;The study aims to facilitate informed decision-making and pave the way toward lasting peace, development, and prosperity in the region.</em></p> Noureen Akhtar, Dr. Abdul Rauf Iqbal Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/337 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Progress and Challenges to the Global Peace: An Evaluation of the United Nations Security Council https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/338 <p><em>In 1945, the international community, led by powerful nations at that time, committed to creating a world organization known as the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). The primary goal was to prevent another world war and safeguard humanity from catastrophic destruction. However, the Council has not fully met expectations in maintaining world peace and resolving international disputes. This dismal performance is largely due to limitations in the Council's composition including lacking diverse international representation and granting veto power exclusively to the most powerful states which have been driven largely by their self-interests. Reforming the UNSC is crucial for achieving the vision of international peace by enhancing its democratic nature and eliminating these shortcomings.</em></p> Dr. Shahzad Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/338 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 European Union’s role as a Global Actor: Shifting focus from Regionalism to International Politics https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/389 <p>The emergence of European Union in global politics, addressing pressing issues throughout the world while also championing causes like social justice, individual liberties, and the rule of law. This paper analyses how the European Union’s foreign policy stance affects international relations. Discussions focus on the EEAS and the potential for EU peace missions to grow. The research paper aims to highlight the efforts of EU to protect the peace and stresses the EU's unyielding dedication to preserving calm, preventing conflict, and responding to disasters. This article examines the European Union’s Common Security and Defense Policy in great detail, including the many missions and initiatives the EU has taken to show its proactive engagement in international problems. In this article, we take a look at the European Union's (EU) efforts to improve international norms and safeguard human rights via programs including humanitarian assistance, diplomatic initiatives, and the Common Foreign and Security Policy. The European Union's (EU) dedication to promoting and protecting human rights internationally has been proved via its funding of considerable humanitarian aid, participation in United Nations (UN) programs, and punishment of human rights abusers. It is also notable that EU’s involvement with countries in the Pacific, Africa, and the Caribbean are based on EU's dedication to trade-based development in those regions. The paper also analyses European Union (EU) foreign policy, contrasting the EU's normative stance with the realism paradigm supported by the United States government. It looks at the European Union's role as a regional power on the global arena and how it may work with the United States and other big states to accomplish its own foreign policy goals. Using the European Union's (EU) engagement in the Israel-Palestine conflict as a case study, this paper aims to show how the EU handles complex geopolitical difficulties while remaining true to its core values and promoting the idea of two nations. In the end, the European Union is engaged in a wide variety of global political endeavors, such as peacekeeping, humanitarian aid, and the promotion of progressive principles. Its standing in the international world has improved thanks to its work in international organizations and efforts to address global problems.</p> Munazza Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/J-NESS/article/view/389 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000