Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies <p>J-NESS is an interdisciplinary academic pursuit to disseminate the awareness and information on the importance of our aquatic channels and resources. The purpose of this effort is to bring attention to the latest topics of discussion at international level, e.g. Sustainable Development of Coastal Indigenous Communities, Blue Economy, Maritime Security and Surveillance, Circular Economy, Marine Renewable Energy, Maritime Transport and Coastal Tourism, Fisheries and Aquaculture, and related geopolitical and geo-economic dimensions.</p> en-US (Dr. Uzma Naz) (Centre for Research and Development) Sun, 12 Mar 2023 08:07:32 +0000 OJS 60 Blue Economy and Power Politics in the Indian Ocean: Challenges and Opportunities <p>In order to meet the future global economic challenges, the understanding of the dynamics of the Oceans, in terms of trading aspect, is as essential for the international states as Oxygen is important for the survival of the human beings. This study is an effort to explore the Indian Ocean in the context of "Blue Economy". The Indian Ocean has been presented by the maritime strategists, as an important alternate option, in terms of the increasing dependency of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia on natural resource flows. As being the third-largest ocean in the world, it has grown its’ significance in global politics over the past three decades. It has unique geographic structure, bounded by Australia toward the South-East, Africa in the West and Asia in the North and East. Inspite of enjoying substantial size, expanding population and abundant natural resources, it has long been comparatively neglected in global geopolitics by the superpowers in 20<sup>th</sup> century. But now, rapidly growing economic challenges compelled the international states to take the Indian Ocean from economic perspective. The objectives of the study are to examine the dynamics of the Indian Ocean from both strategic and economic perspectives, to highlight the challenges, facing by China and Pakistan as a result of the Indian Maritime Strategy in the Indian Ocean and the presence of US naval forces there and finally, to identify those areas where Pakistan-China might be able to take advantage of the Indian Ocean, in the perspective of the Blue Economy. The qualitative study has been grounded, based on secondary data by applying the theory of balance of power. Finally, it offered some recommendations for China and Pakistan regarding how to address the problems that the US and India have placed in the Indian Ocean.</p> Dr. Muhammad Asif Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MECHANISM OF MARINE POLLUTION - THE CASE OF PAKISTAN <p>The aim of this paper is to study the major causes of marine pollution &amp; its negative effects on coastal areas of Sindh and Balochistan in Pakistan; the role of the regulatory setup to control marine pollution; and the status of local &amp; international legal implications in Pakistan. In addition, due to ports &amp; shipping developments/activities, they are causing environmental and human health problems by disrupting the ocean ecosystem and biota. This paper also identifies the direct and indirect sources of marine pollution through ports &amp; shipping activities, infrastructural developments, and the discharge of wastes into the sea from different sources. It also explores the failures of the system to control marine pollution due to the lack of political will, unsustainable management practices, lack of traditional knowledge and modern standards and technologies, lack of community participation, and not ratifying the mandatory laws and conventions on marine pollution nor proper implementation of them. The analysis indicates the weakness of the implications of the legal setup as per international standards (by the International Maritime Organization (IMO)). The results showed that only pollution by ports and shipping activities is an insignificant reason for the weakness of the shipping business. The analysis shows that legal bodies, the Ministry of Maritime Affairs (MOMA), associated organizations, policy matters, the role of ports of Sindh and Balochistan, and coastal communities have less understanding about management and procedures to control pollution in the coastal areas and in the sea. It can be concluded that pollutants can cause a variety of biological effects, including metabolic dysfunction, genetic damage, and phonological changes. Therefore, it is recommended that the government formulate specific policies within the framework of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 14)-2015-2030 and UN Ocean Decade Challenges for 2021–2030 that would develop the significant objectives and implementation plans for the green environment, which would contain potential procedures for the sustainable growth of ports and shipping businesses through compliance with IMO standards and maintain the positive relationship between national and international levels.</p> Sadia Sherazi Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Maritime policy during the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and British occupation of Indonesia <p>Geographically, 70% of Indonesia's territory is water. This made the nations that occupied Indonesia such as Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and Britain have their own policies towards the colony, namely Indonesia. In general, the purpose of arrival was due to control of Indonesian spices such as pepper, cloves and nutmeg. They came to Indonesian territory by sea until they came to power in Indonesia and regulated water and trade policies. The law of the Tordesillas treaty regulated the division of exploration routes between Spain and Portugal. Spain and Portugal proved to be the opening sea explorers. The path they crossed became a reference for other nations to explore as well. The Dutch with the longest colonization time in Indonesia succeeded in making the archipelago once achieved its greatest expansion. The Dutch also regulated the policy of shipping routes and ports according to the current situation in that place and the prevailing political policies. There was a strong maritime competition between the Dutch and the British that led to the Dutch-British treaty. The British developed power in the sea and land areas of the Malay Peninsula to Sarawak-Borneo, while the Dutch with a base in Batavia developed sea and land areas to the tip of the outer islands in the east.</p> Alfi Zaidatussholihah Romadi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 INADEQUACY IN FISHERIES INFRASTRUCTURE: A MAJOR OBSTACLE IN ACCRUING THE BENEFIT OF BLUE ECONOMY <p>Fisheries sector is expected to be a major contributor in the blue economy of Pakistan, however, development in this sector is hampered by major inadequacy in the required infrastructure. There are about 70 major and minor fish landing centers along the coast of Pakistan, however, fish harbors are established at 3 sites in Sindh and 2 sites in Balochistan. In addition, 14 floating jetties have been established in the creek system of Indus Delta whereas one floating jetty was established along Balochistan coast. In almost all cases, fish landing centers have been established without proper planning and taking into consideration the requirement of the fishermen of the area. Karachi Fish Harbour being the biggest landing center is marred with massive congestion, cul-de-sac turning basin which is highly polluted and prevalence of extreme unhygienic condition. Gwadar Fish Harbor and Miniport and landing centers at Pushukan, Jiwani, Damb and Gaddani are improperly designed, therefore, either non-operational or inadequately utilized. Pasni Fish Harbour, because of negligence got heavily silted. Korangi Fish Harbour, although constructed about 30 years back but still could not put into operation because of inadequate facilities and commitment. In almost all cases, fish harbours established in Pakistan are not designed to cope with the development need of blue economy. Additionally other infrastructure such a coastal road and link roads (“farm to market” roads) are also not appropriate for increasing pressure expected of blue economy. The paper will describe major shortcomings in the fisheries infrastructure in Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Moazzam Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 South China Sea Conflict; A Territorial Dispute <p>Since the last decade conflict of south china sea is in spotlight. This regional conflict is in six states named China, Philippines, Vetinam, Brunei, Taiwan and Malaysia. Through&nbsp; straight of Malacca SCS connects with Indian Ocean and through Straight of Formosa SCS connects with East China Sea. As China claims it territory in South China Sea according&nbsp; 9 Dash Line(from 1949) and UN is forcing China to follow the UNCLOS rule. It is important to know that South China Sea is important in terms of trade routes(around one third trade passes through here) Natural Reserves and rich in Fishing resources. Vetinam halso has a historical Claim, that is Geneva Accords 1954. China is making artificial islands and militarizing them with anti_ships, missiles and aircrafts. UN claims that its creating instability in region, also this act of china is consider as a attack on other nations sovereignty and economic prosperity. In this article we will know the conflict of different states in region.Concerns, strategies of international politics toward this territorial dispute and response of China.</p> Hafsa Israr Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Great Power Rivalry in the Indian Ocean and its impact on Pakistan <p>Over the past 20 years, the Indian Ocean's (IO) strategic maritime environment has seen significant change. As a result of defense and security measures, regional emphasis has abruptly switched from territorial to maritime borders, having a significant impact on transnational ties. This study addresses the historical context of the strategic maritime environment of the Indian Ocean as well as evolving patterns of the US, China, and Indian presence as main competitors. The US is using its counterbalancing policy against China by improving its relations with India in the Indian Ocean. China through its Belt and Road Initiative and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, envisions a "Common Future, Common Growth" agenda. The Asia-Pacific rebalancing is replaced by the US Indo-Pacific Strategy. Iran's strategic interests in the Indian Ocean are connected to its strategic need to use oil diplomacy to break out of its "geopolitical isolation” because of US rivalry.&nbsp; The European Union observes from the side lobes the political and strategic events in the Indian Ocean. Pakistan has a tremendous geostrategic advantage due to its presence at the entrance to energy highways, especially in light of China's BRI and its centerpiece CPEC. This study analyses the struggle for hegemony in the Indian Ocean and offers Pakistan policy recommendations.</p> Gul-i-Ayesha Bhatti Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Nautical Eye and Strategic Studies Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000