India’s Hybrid Warfare Against Pakistan: PPP and PMLN Governments Response (2008-2018)


  • Prof. Dr. Shabnam Gul Lahore College for Women University
  • Hira Shakir Lahore College for Women University



Hybrid Warfare, Indian Subcontinent, India, Pakistan People Party, Pakistan Muslim League, Counter strategies


After the division of the Indian subcontinent, the conflict is still ongoing between Pakistan and India over the territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Many wars have been fought between the two countries. With the development of the subject of International Relations the concept of irregular warfare also termed as Hybrid Warfare has been introduced. This research paper explores the complex landscape of India’s Hybrid warfare against Pakistan, focusing on a comparative analysis of the strategies employed during the tenures of the Pakistan People Party (PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) governments to counter India’s Hybrid warfare. This study aims to interpret the distinct approaches each government adopted to address this complex irregular warfare. By scrutinizing diplomatic engagements, intelligence operations, and responses to regional challenges, the research seeks to unravel the efficacy of the PPP and PML-N administrations in managing and responding to the multifaceted nature of Indo-Pak relations from a hybrid warfare perspective.


"RAW agent reveals, more spies present to destabilise Pakistan". . (2016, March 29).

Alaphilippe , G. M., & Adamczyk, R. (2020). Indian Chronicles : Deep Dive into a 15-Year Operation Targeting the EU and UN to Serve Indian Interests. EU Disinfo Lab.

“Ex-Indian Army chief admits sponsoring terrorism in Balochistan”. (2013, October 21). The News.

Abbasi, A. (2021, September 20). 2009 terrorist attack on Sri Lankan team was RAW sponsored. The News.

Asghar, R. (2008, february 19). Musharraf allies face voters’ wrath: •PPP, PML-N on a roll •19 killed in poll-related violence. Dawn.

Azam, M. (2021). Pakistan -India Security Paradox: Between Deterrence and Coercive Diplomacy. Strategic Vision Institute: Journal of Security & Strategic Analyses.

Badami, R. (2017). Operation Deep Strike: An India-Pakistan Covert Ops Spy Thriller.

Baweja, H. (2013, September 21). “Army spook unit carried out covert ops in Pakistan” September 21, 2013. Hindustan Times.

Chronology of major terror incidents in Balochistan. (2016, November 19). Retrieved from Voice of Balochistan. (2013, March 16). Timeline: Major political events from 2008-2013. Dawn.

Fisher, M. H. (2018). An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gunmen shoot Sri Lanka cricketers. (2009, March 3). BBC News.

Haider, M., & Qarar, S. ( 2016, March 25). "India accepts 'spy' as former navy officer, denies having links". DAWN.

Hoffman, F. (2007). Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars. Arlington, Virginia: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.

India behind at least 4 high-profile terrorist attacks in Pakistan; 'We have evidence to the T’. (2020, October 13). Retrieved from Geo News.

Jahangir, R. (2020, December 10). Indian network lobbying against Pakistan exposed. Dawn.

(2011). Karachi targeted killings claimed 748 lives . Human Rights Commission of Pakistan.

Khan, Y. (20017). The Great Partition: The Making of Pakistan and India (2 ed.). New Haven and London: Yale University Press,.

Lahiri, I. (2021, March 27). Was Modi Arrested for Bangladesh Satyagraha? Here’s What We Know. The quint.

NA oath-taking overshadowed by power struggle in PPP. (2008, March 18). Dawn.

National Centre for Cyber Security. (2018). Retrieved from NCCS.

National Counter Terrorism Authority (NACTA): A wise step by the people's government. (2014, December 25). LUBP.

National Response Center for Cyber Crime. (2022, june 13). Retrieved from

Pakistan counter terrorism strategy showing positive results. (2021, August 11). Retrieved from Digital Associated Press of Pakistan.

Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act, 2016, August 19. (2017, August 19). Retrieved from Government of Pakistan:

Sachdev, A. (. (2000). "Media Related Lessons From Kargil". IDSA.

Sansanwal, G. (2016, September 30). The Modi-Doval doctrine of “Offensive Defence” marks its arrival.

Sattar, A. (2010). Pakistan Foreign Policy: A concise History 1947-2009. Oxford University Press.

Shah, S. A. (2016, March 31). Arrested 'RAW agent' trained separatists to target Pakistani ports: security official. Dawn.

Targeted killings dropped by 72pc in Karachi last year: report. (2015, February). DAWN.

Timeline: The three-time rise and fall of Pakistan's Nawaz Sharif. (2018, July 6). Reuters.

Yousaf, K. (2017, June 22). RAW spy begs army chief for mercy. The Express Tribune.




How to Cite

Gul, P. D. S., & Shakir, H. . (2023). India’s Hybrid Warfare Against Pakistan: PPP and PMLN Governments Response (2008-2018). Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences, 10(2), 24–36.



Articles (English)