Al-Irfan https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan <p>Al Irfan is a double-blind peer-reviewed journal of Minhaj University, which is published bi-annually. Al-Irfan Research Journal works under (COSIS) College of Shariah and Islamic Sciences, Minhaj University, Lahore, Pakistan. It accepts articles in different languages like Arabic, English, Urdu, etc. This Magazine accepts articles that are written on rare topics such as the Qur'an, Hadith, Fiqh, Seerah, Sufism, Comparison of Religions, History, etc. <span data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ur" data-phrase-index="2" data-number-of-phrases="3">Al-Irfan </span>Magazine prefers to publish articles that address current issues. The author/authors should remember that the Journal will accept only original papers. It implies that the work submitted has not been either published or accepted previously except in the form of a thesis, abstract, and review. Only the papers recommended by the referees will be published. However, the author/authors bear the total responsibility for removing the observations and maintaining the accuracy of the paper. The Plagiarism/Similarity should be less than 15 percent. The author should follow the pattern and formatting of the Al-Irfan Research Journal in the citation.</p> <p> </p> en-US alirfan@mul.edu.pk (Dr. Mumtaz ul Hassan) crd@mul.edu.pk (Centre for Research and Development) Wed, 31 Jan 2024 04:43:05 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.5 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 The Linguistic and Legal Implications of ‘Waḍribūhunna’ in Sūra al-Nisāʾ (4:34) https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/399 <p style="margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; background: white;"><span lang="EN-GB">This article presents a thorough examination of the word ‘ḍarb’ within the context of marital relations as depicted in verse 34 of Sura al-Nisaʾ. While traditionally translated as ‘strike them’, this study explores an alternative rendering as ‘turn them away’, as proposed in The Manifest Qur’an, aligning with Islamic principles of marital reconciliation and equitable treatment of women. The analysis encompasses various linguistic nuances of ‘ḍarb’ in classical Arabic, tracing its etymological roots and lexical meanings. Furthermore, it evaluates the chosen translation’s congruence with the Qur’ānic approach to resolving marital discord, incorporating insights from Prophetic teachings found in the Sunna regarding the physical ‘disciplining’ of women. Additionally, the abstract addresses potential misunderstandings arising from certain narratives about hitting, offering a nuanced understanding grounded in both linguistic and religious contexts. This comprehensive exploration sheds light on the intricate interplay between language, culture and religious interpretation within Islamic jurisprudence.</span></p> Prof Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/399 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Muslim-Christian Debates in the Subcontinent: A Research Review https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/397 <p><em>Subcontinent is a multi-religious territory and Hinduism is the most ancient religion of this land which is divided into more sects. When Christianity started here during </em><em>the first century AD the Indians accepted it and bowed the knee before it. Islam was introduced in the Subcontinent because of Arabian traders. In the 8<sup>th</sup> century, the Arabian government was established here. The Christians, being the people of the Book, created more problems for the Muslims because of some similarities. That is why the Muslims had to face their objections and prove Islam as a true divine religion.</em><em> Mughal emperor Akbar started Muslim-Christian debates and after him, his son </em><em>Jahangir</em><em> held on to this practice. Their religious policies upreared Christianity in the Subcontinent. Shāh Jahān got over this situation and encouraged the Muslim-converted people by changing the law. Muslim-Christian debates were in full swing during the British period. It was the time when Christian ecclesiasts burnt the candle at both ends to convert the Muslims to Christianity.</em></p> Dr. Syed Toqeer Abbas, Dr. Muhammad Riaz Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/397 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Analytical Study of Pakistani Law Regarding Assurance of Halal Production and Consumption https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/354 <p><em>The term Halaal is booming day by day. The entire world is in competition to boost it in order to add in the economy of their countries. Pakistan is an Islamic country and has designed its constitution in the light of Shariah. Halaal laws were first adopted by Thailand a non-Islamic country and Malaysia.</em></p> <p><em>After the formation of PSQCA in 1996 Shariah Standards for slaughtering were drafted by government. Then they were reviewed in 2010. Since then more than ten halal standards are approved by NSC PSQCA. In 2015 a bill by the name “Pakistan Halaal Authority PHA 2015” was approved by National Assembly and Senate, and now it has started working for the last some years.</em></p> <p><em>In this paper first we will review local laws regarding food before introduction of the term Halaal in Pakistan and then will have a detail glance on Pakistani laws regarding Halaal food from 1996 till date. We will discuss the status of Halaal standards finalized by Halaal food technical and National committees PSQCA, the status of various government bodies working for Halaal, acts and laws approved by Government in the field of Halaal and then will give some recommendations to the government in the light of research.</em></p> Dr. Noor Wali Shah, Dr. Nisar Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/354 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An Islamic Response to Capitalism: A Study of Mawdūdī’s Writings on Islamic Economics https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/356 <p><em>Sayyid Abul A‘lā Mawdūdī (1903-79) is recognized as one of the foremost scholars and religious revivalists of the twentieth century. Mawdūdī is widely famous for his views on Islamic economics as he is for his discourses on the Islamic state. He was not a professional economist but a reformer who proposed the foundations of an Islamic state economy in keeping with the central objective of Sharī‘ah rather than systemizing a scientific discipline. He mostly wrote on Islamic economics in the context of his discussion about dīn and the Islamic state. It may be said that in the Indian subcontinent, he played a leading role in developing the economic system of Islam as a distinct discipline. This paper aims to analyze the economy of the Islamic state vis-à-vis capitalism, employing Maududi's writings as primary sources. This paper is divided into three sections, the first section of which deals with Mawdūdī’s conception of capitalism. The second section of the paper examines Mawdūdī’s critique of capitalism to identify the flaws of the capitalist economy. The final section section involves identifying the principles of Islamic economics proposed by Mawdūdī as an alternative to capitalism.</em></p> Zain Razzaq, Rab Nawaz Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/356 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Selection of Spouse With Free and Full Consent, A Comparison between Islam and UDHR Article 16 (A Comparative Study) https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/366 <p><em>An Essential motive to choose this topic is that to share Islamic version about selection of spouse for marriage as compare to Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) Article 16 which also considered about selection of spouse. UDHR and Islam deliberated about significance of Marriage for both man and women to extend their family but have some difference of standard about Selection of spouse for Marriage .In this article we will share point of UDHR article 16 and Islamic vision about Selection of spouse for marriage .This article will also explain comparison between Islamic and United Nation Human right charter explanation about Selection of spouse with free and full consent. Islam allow boy or girl to choose their life partner will free and full consent under Islamic law but with the advice and guideline of parents or elder ,while UDHR authorized boy and girl to may choose their spouse with full authority without any limitation of race, color ,religion or nationality. Although all Muslim countries signed this United Nation Human right charter so after signing this charted they need to follow UN Human right charter all 30 articles but now they realize that this charter have difference criteria about selection of spouse which causing clash, same time United Nation Human Right Department considering around 1.8 Billion Muslim Population as major part of the world population ,second largest Religion of the world that Muslim can practice their religious beliefs freely with considering of International Human Right charter .This article will assist Muslim population to recognize, reconsideration and attempt to modification some articles of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) especially regarding Spouse selection criteria for Marriage (Nikah), and UN Human right department need to re-consider this point under different religions and regional beliefs ,regional and culture value.</em></p> <p><em><strong> </strong></em></p> <p><em><strong> </strong></em></p> Asad Mehmood, Abid Saeed Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/366 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Contextualizing Research Approaches: The Role of Western and Islamic Philosophies in Shaping Methodology and Knowledge Creation https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/398 <p><em>This paper presents a comparative analysis of Western and Islamic research philosophies and methodologies, exploring how each tradition conceptualizes and approaches the creation of knowledge. The key objective is to understand the strengths and limitations of these perspectives and to propose a framework for their integration in various research contexts. Employing a comprehensive literature review approach, the paper systematically examines existing scholarly work to delineate the philosophical underpinnings and methodological practices of both traditions. The findings reveal that while Western research emphasizes empirical and objective methods, Islamic research integrates these with ethical and spiritual dimensions, offering a more holistic approach. The study contributes to the field by highlighting the importance of integrating diverse research methodologies, enhancing inclusivity, and ethical depth in research practices, and proposes practical recommendations for adopting these integrated methodologies in diverse contexts. This comparative analysis underscores the value of embracing methodological diversity, paving the way for more inclusive and culturally sensitive research practices in the global research community.</em></p> Muhammad Asim Imam, Sajjad Ahmad, Muhammad Asad Akram Bhatti, Muhammad Afzal Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/398 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 حجرات نبوی ﷺ کی دینی اور دنیاوی اہمیت عصر حاضر کے تناظر میں https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/393 <p>The personality of the Holy Prophet ﷺ is perfect and complete by following whom a person can be successful in this world and the hereafter. Today personal life has been shattered due to doubts and lack of trust. All those joys and happiness were present in these small houses which have almost disappeared in this advanced age. In these rooms of the Holy Prophetﷺ where life was full, the revelation of Allah was also revealed, and they performed the duty of divine worship and education of the Ummah.</p> <p>&nbsp;The reason for choosing this topic is that the domestic life of the Holy Prophet and his wives may be covered in simple words and to explain that the peace of life is not in the acquisition of material things but in the guidance of the Prophet ﷺ and the mothers of the believers.</p> Hafiz Muhammad Sanaullah, Dr. Najamuddin Kokab Hashmi Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/393 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 سامی ادیان میں تصوف کے تصورات اور تجربات کا تقابلی جائزہ https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/320 <p><em>Spiritual experiences and the attainment of enlightment had been a favorite subject and spiritual need of humanities since day first. This article examines the experiences and core beliefs of mysticism in semitic religions in narrative and analytical style. Man goes to great lengths to gain power and success in social affairs, but the other side of the picture is that, arrangements for the peace of the soul in could not attain by aristocratic life style. It is fact that history is not unfimiliar with the experience and statements of sufism. A group of people striving for spiritual perfection has its special position in the history of religions. The characteristics of semistic religions is their rightful claim, that is, ALLAH gave these religion a unique from other religions. Then, in his last book the Holy Quran, he mentioned the habits, beliefs, religious and spiritual experiences and faith of these religions in detail compared to other religions. This research will present a comparative analysis of mystic experience, status, styles, aims of austerity, and tradition of spiritual experiences in semitic religions. Hence, the similarities and differences.</em></p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"></a></p> Saima Shehzadi, Dr. Syed Hamid Farooq Bukhari Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/320 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 غزوات النبیﷺسے متعلق اشکالات اور ان کے جوابات (ایک تحقیقی جائزہ) https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/394 <p>The creator of the universe blessed mankind with a great and noble personality like Sayyidna Muhammad ﷺ.&nbsp; Since the early days of Islam, thousands of Muslim and non-Muslim scholars have written on the Prophet's biography.&nbsp; Disagreement arose from these scholars in describing the events and the history, which has caused many doubts and confusion in the human mind. For example, the age of Sayyida Ayesha and Sayyida Khadijah at the time of marriage, cancelation of relevation, the event of Miraj, as well as the events that happened in the wars, etc. However, in this paper, only the issues raised in relation to the defensive wars of the Holy Prophet and their possible answers will be examined.</p> Muhammad Aslam RUbbani Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/394 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 حضرت شاہ غلام علی دہلویؒ اور ان کے تلامذہ کی دینی و دعوتی خدمات کا اجمالی جائزہ https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/395 <p>Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali Dehlvi is one of the very famous religious and scholarly personalities of the sub-continent. His efforts are known for the revival of the Mujadadiyya Naqshbandiyya lineage in the twelfth century AD. By the grace of Allah Almighty, his personality and his struggles, his influence reached beyond India to Arabia, Rome, Syria and Kurdistan. His successors and disciples, Shah Rauf Ahmad Mujjadidi, Shah Abu Saeed, Shah Ahmad Saeed, Hazrat Khwaja Ghulam Mohiuddin Kasuri in India and Maulana Ziauddin Khalid Kurdi in Rome and Turkey addressed various political, social and intellectual problems that arose during this critical period where many Muslims were being led astray. They publicized the original teachings of Islam, promoted the chain of Naqshbandiyya and served the religion in different ways. In this regard, the services of Khwaja Ghulam Mohiuddin Kasuri and his disciple and caliph Hazrat Shah Ghulam Dastgir Hashmi are considered very important in Pakistan, especially in the region of Punjab. Allah Almighty has honored our Mashaikh so much that they have been the focus of various writers and researchers throughout history and still many researches are being conducted on their works. In this article, the services of Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali Dehlvi and his students in relevance to promotion of religion have been reviewed.</p> Dr. Nadia Alam, Dr. Ali Akbar Alazhari Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/395 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 تکریم ِانسانی اور مثلہ کی ممانعت:شرعی و قانونی جائزہ https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/332 <p><em>Allah Ta'ala has made the "Man"- the highest creations among all creations and has given him such sanctity and dignity which is not limited to life but continues after death. That's why in Islamic Shari'ah, clear orders have been given regarding the respect of the human body and it has not only been forbidden to do any kind of harm to it, but it has also made it obligatory to bury it with dignity and respect. Even the desecration of the dead body of a criminal who has committed the worst crimes and who has fought on behalf of the enemy in war is prohibited. But regrettably, in the recent past, both in peace and in war, there have been continuous incidents of desecration of human corpses, so the need was felt that in the life of a person, while giving death penalty for a crime or killing and after death, a Shari'a and legal approach based on honoring and respecting the human body should be brought forward. Keeping this need in mind, these three aspects have been examined in this Article under review, especially by mentioning the Quranic verses, Ahadith and the syings of Fuqaha, the Shariah ruling has been explained. Along with this, the current legal status of "Musla" has also been discussed in terms of international humanitarian law and other international laws<strong>.</strong></em></p> Dr. Muhammad Adil, Dr. Ziaullah Rahmani Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/332 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 فکر اقبال کی عصری معنویت جدید نو آبادیاتی تہذیبی تناظر میں https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/376 <p><em>After the 2<sup>nd</sup> Word War, the United States emerged as a new super power and planned indirect political, economical and cultural rule instead of direct control. For this purpose the European Countries under its rule gathered to form a “Neo-Colonial System” and laid foundation of some institutions like IMF, WTO and World Bank. Today, these institutions have become the arms of imperial powers and the policies of weaker countries are controlled by international aids, provision of loans, investment facilities and technological advancement. The same imperialist spirit of Kippling “White Man’s Burdon” is seen in the ideas of Fokoyamha and Hitington. This neo-imperialism is built on the ideas like cultural hegemony, capitalism and political oppression. Allama Iqbal is a great Muslim figure of the 20<sup>th</sup> century who is remembered as a representative of anti-colonialism. His poetry and prose is an expression of different aspects of anti-colonialism. In his creations, the intensity of passion along with the intellectual and spiritual depth has been present in the highest degree. This is the sign of the living thinker that the meanings of his thoughts unfold over time. Even today, his universal thought can be a beacon for us against neo-colonialism with its full contemporary meanings.</em></p> Jahangir Tahir, Dr. Fayyaz Ahmed Farooq Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/376 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 فقہ ظاہری کا اصولِ اجتہاد (دلیلِ اجماعی ) مسالکِ اربعہ کے تناظر میں https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/369 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p><em>Islam is the religion which guides the humanity not only in every aspect of life, but also solves the problems coming to be faced by humans upto the Day of judgement. On the other side, as the texts of Quran and Hadith are limited, and the expected problems are unlimited, so it is impossible to denote the solution of every problem clearly and vividly in the texts of Holy Quran and Hadith. For this purpose , Quran and Hadith put&nbsp; some principles explicitly or inexplicitly&nbsp; through which the solution of every problem may be solved in the light of the Holy Quran and Hadith. This activity is called Ijtihaad and the principles are called Principles of Ijtihaad. The article below is&nbsp; related to a principle of Ijtihaad&nbsp; practiced in Fiqh Zahiri (Daleel e ijma<sup>,</sup>ai) and it answers to the question what is the&nbsp; &nbsp;position of Daleel e ijma<sup>,</sup>ai &nbsp;in the perspective of Masaalik e Arba<sup>,</sup>a.?</em></p> Manhaj ud Din Manhaj ud Din, Prof. Dr. Shah Mohyuddin Hashmi Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/369 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ففتھ جنریشن وار فئیر اور اس کے اہم ذرائع (اسلامی تعلیمات اور عصر حاضر کے تناظر میں) https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/378 <p>Fifth generation warfare is conducted by psychological tactics. This war is primarily fought through non-kinetic military action such as misuse of social media, spreading misinformation, cyberattacks along with emerging technologies like artificial intelligence and fully autonomous systems. The term “fifth generation warfare” was first time used in 2010 by Lieutenant Colonel Alberts who was American army officer and theorist. The concept of four generations in the history of modern warfare was created by a team of United States analysts including William S. Lind in 1989 for the purpose of an argument that changing face of war entering into a fourth generation. The intention behind fifth generation war is to use latest technology of current era as well as save all resources which are used in physical warfare.</p> <p>Keywords:</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Fifth generation warfare, non-kinetic military action, social media, cyberattacks, artificial intelligence, Lieutenant Colonel Alberts, William S. Lind</p> Hafiz Ahmad Saeed Awan Awan, Dr. Muhammad Ramzan Najam Barvi Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/378 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 معطلاتِ عقل کی معاصر صورتوں کا تجزیاتی مطالعہ https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/396 <p><em>Intellect is the best gift of Allah to man, and this is the blessing due to which a man has been distinguished from other creatures. That is why Allah has been emphasized in the Islamic Shari'ah for the protection and nourishment of the human intellect. The Shari'ah has prohibited all such things which can suspend and affect the intellect of man and affect the understanding of man and spoiling the ultimate end. For instance, following other religions, illusions and superstitions, anger, anxiety, suspicion and self-desires are prohibited. Similarly, the excessive use of the Internet also negatively impacts the human intellect. The Internet is just like an addiction and is embedding speedily in this modern age which is directly affecting the human ability of prudence and contemplation. Reduction in the wisdom causes the reduction of research skills of human beings. This article discusses those aspects that are directly or indirectly affecting human intellect and are suspending abilities and reducing the power of intellect. This research is conducted with descriptive and analytical methods.</em></p> Fatima Tuz Zahra, Dr. Muhammad Ghayas Copyright (c) 2023 Al-Irfan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/alirfan/article/view/396 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000