Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS <p>JPRSS is a collective effort. Our team members aim to synergize their potential and efforts to create a multi-disciplinary, productive, and inclusive international academic fraternity at Minhaj University Lahore. Moving forward with a pro-student approach, we consider students and young scholars as our primary asset and important target audience. The basic purpose is to develop a reading habit and promote a culture of knowledge exchange in students. Therefore, we encourage academia, experts, writers, and young scholars to contribute theoretical and empirical research papers and articles with current and historical insights. To acknowledge the significance of the latest debates and discussions and pitch in with these emerging discourses, JPRSS also accepts the reviews of the latest books or texts for publication.</p> en-US jprss@mul.edu.pk (Dr. Adeel Irfan) crd@mul.edu.pk (Centre for Research and Development) Wed, 17 Jan 2024 07:02:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.5 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Revisiting Pakistan's Energy Crisis and CPEC Power Projects https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/283 <p>Pakistan, a country severely affected by energy crisis, is fulfilling its energy demands by a combination of fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas), renewables, and nuclear energy. Fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas account for nearly one-third of energy imports are major source of Pakistan’s primary energy mix. Almost 75% of energy production through CPEC power plants is through coal. Environmental and debt sustainability, two vital concerns highlighted by critics about CPEC power plants, are the major focus of this study. Considering the gap between demand and supply and environmental impacts caused by over-emphasis on fossil fuels to generate electricity, this study is structured to explore the impacts of CPEC power plants on environmental and debt sustainability in Pakistan. It further aims at exploring the factors behind new generated capacity through CPEC power projects. Exploring energy security of Pakistan, this paper utilizes 4As framework as a methodology to measure the transformations in Pakistan’s energy security by mapping it onto four aspects: availability, applicability, acceptability, and affordability. Two key aspects of energy security, availability and affordability of energy, are heavily emphasized in this study. Despite substantial flows into the energy infrastructure through CPEC, Pakistan still continues to be energy insecure facing additional challenges in the shape of environmental and debt sustainability. The study recommends gradual but consistent adoption of green energy solutions and enhanced conservation efforts for mitigating energy, environmental, and debt insecurities.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Energy security, environmental and debt sustainability, green energy, 4As framework, CPEC power projects etc.</p> Arfan Mahmood Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/283 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 India’s Hybrid Warfare Against Pakistan: PPP and PMLN Governments Response (2008-2018) https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/385 <p>After the division of the Indian subcontinent, the conflict is still ongoing between Pakistan and India over the territory of Jammu and Kashmir. Many wars have been fought between the two countries. With the development of the subject of International Relations the concept of irregular warfare also termed as Hybrid Warfare has been introduced. This research paper explores the complex landscape of India’s Hybrid warfare against Pakistan, focusing on a comparative analysis of the strategies employed during the tenures of the Pakistan People Party (PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) governments to counter India’s Hybrid warfare. This study aims to interpret the distinct approaches each government adopted to address this complex irregular warfare. By scrutinizing diplomatic engagements, intelligence operations, and responses to regional challenges, the research seeks to unravel the efficacy of the PPP and PML-N administrations in managing and responding to the multifaceted nature of Indo-Pak relations from a hybrid warfare perspective.</p> Prof. Dr. Shabnam Gul, Hira Shakir Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/385 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Dynamics of Pakistan-Poland Relations in the Era of Geo-economics and Geo-culture https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/305 <p>Aim of this study is to investigate the dynamics of Pakistan-Poland relations in the eras of geo-economics and geo-culture. Geo-economics refers to the economic dimensions of geopolitical actor influencing economic policies and initiatives in international relations. Analysis of the concept of geo-economics in light of neoliberalism enables the investigator to explore the potential of economic relations between Pakistan and Poland. The geo-culture as another perception combines cross borders cultural communications and interactions between and among the nations. The model of inter-state relations that suggests international cooperation including bilateral relations as viable is also appropriate for evaluation of Pakistan-Poland relations. The potential of cooperation between the two countries remains largely untapped, specifically in the current global geo-economics and geo-cultural backdrops. Author studies the changing aspects of relations between Pakistan and Poland also from historical perceptions as the Pakistan and Poland ties are originated on a solid base providing a durable source of the collaboration in the emerging political and economic environments. The geo-economics and geo-culture eras offer enormous opportunities of cooperation through different means including functional diplomacies enabling both countries to learn from each other experiences in numerous fields.</p> Syed Sibtain Hussain Shah Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/305 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Socio-Cultural Constraints, Solution towards Philanthropy in Dhook Hasu Rawalpindi,Punjab, Pakistan https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/363 <p>Providing of services for the welfare of human beings are not the easy tasks for the humanitarian activists, the volunteer’s feelings and passions force the philanthropists to come forward to play their role to achieve their ends. The commitment, determination and struggle of the public welfare activists instigate&nbsp;&nbsp; how to overcome the hardships by practicing the welfareism in the community.&nbsp; To materialize the philanthropic spirit and to invest the time and money for minimizing the displeasures, disparities and human sufferings is the challenge for public welfare activists and humanists.&nbsp; In spite of facing pains, the active socio-cultural engineers, philanthropists and volunteers spend their energies for the public welfare as well as for the social development by leaving aside the degree of humanistic passions, feelings and emotions of philanthropists and by ignoring all sorts of hurdles on the way of philanthropic practices.&nbsp;</p> Dr.Abdul Rasheed, Mustansar Abbas, Dr.Majjid Hussian Alias Ghalib Hussian Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/363 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Parental Mediation Regarding Tablet Usage Among Children https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/268 <p>The purpose of this research study was to find out the effect of tablets/mobiles on children’s life and the role of parental mediation. Tablets/mobile phones are used frequently to make children busy. Many parents, who have other urgent things to do other than looking after their kids, use this strategy to keep their children occupied. Parents use this technique to make their kids behave and sit quietly at home or even outside the house. This study examined that parents often have conflict with their children about tablet/mobile phones. In this study the theory of reactance has been used. Parents have used three mediation strategies; Active mediation, Restrictive mediation and co-use mediation. This study used survey method to get responses from the respondents. A sample of 400 parents of children aged 8-11 years was gathered through a questionnaire to investigate the relations. The results show that parents often have conflict with their children using tablets/mobile phones. There was a negative correlation between parent child conflict and social use mediation and parent child conflict and tart use and restrictive mediation. While, there was a positive correlation of tablet use with parent child conflict, active mediation, social co use mediation and other factors.</p> Masroor Ahmed, Dr. Maham Zahid Khan, Insa Kamal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/268 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Effects of Psychological Factors on Male Youth Violent Behavior in Pakistan https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/299 <p>Pakistan is a country prone to violence at every level either in national or at wider level. There is a miss notion that violence among youth in Pakistan is generally linked with religious thoughts. Same as other countries where certain factors are answerable for violence, Youth in Pakistan is faceted of violence due to certain factors. Violence and delinquency are considered more prevalent among youth in Pakistan. The following study was an effort to understand the male youth violent behavior patterns. The objective of the study was to identify different factor associated with violence among male youth in District Rawalpindi. Sample consisted of total 355 respondents from the district Rawalpindi province of Punjab. Proportionate random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from the total population of study areas. There is considerable continuity from childhood aggression to youth violence particularly. Furthermore, the result shows that major long-term predictors are Psychological factors and family factors were responsible among male youth violent behavior. The study also confirmed that positive parental practices were inversely related to violent behavior. In the light of these findings, there is a need of attractive children with their parents in order to develop positive parenting practices to control violent behavior.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Zaheer Abbas Abbas, Dr Muhammad Babar Aram Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/299 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Addressing Contract Cheating in Pakistani Higher Education: Strategies for Upholding Academic Integrity https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/355 <p>Contract cheating has strained the higher education system worldwide, Pakistan is no exception. However, unlike Canada, UK, USA, Pakistan has limited research related to the issue under discussion. The presence of contract cheating has undermined the academic integrity and academic credibility of higher education in Pakistan. This paper sheds light on the role of Quality Assurance Cells in higher educational institutions including University of Management and Technology, University of the Punjab, Lahore College for Women University and Minhaaj University in addressing this issue and proposes recommendations to foster academic integrity. This paper tries to investigate this complex issue, offering strategies to the institutions for addressing it and fostering a culture of academic integrity. In a pursuit to comprehend contract cheating and devise strategies to eradicate it, this study draws upon Albert Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory. The main assumption of this theory is that behavior is learned through observational learning, personal agency, and self-regulation, influenced by both individual and environmental factors. Applying Social Cognitive Theory to the context of contract cheating allows for a comprehensive understanding of the issue, the factors contributing to it, and the strategies that universities can utilize to mitigate its occurrence. The current study was qualitative in nature. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of Directors of Quality Assurance s of the universities mentioned above. The responses were thematically analyzed. The participants were asked about the various reasons that compelled the students to engage in contract cheating and how universities can combat it. As per the majority, to combat contract cheating, institutions must adopt a comprehensive framework. This paper recommends five pivotal areas for Pakistani higher education institutions to anticipate when devising strategies against contract cheating. Institutions must design a policy that prevents, detects, and intervenes in contract cheating. This strategy should align with Pakistan's unique cultural and academic landscape. Existing policies/guidelines need to be reviewed to clearly tackle contract cheating. Policies should highlight the consequences of such actions and strengthen institutional commitment to maintain academic integrity. Comprehending students' motivations for contract cheating is very important. Institutions should create platforms for open discussions and offer support services that address academic pressures, fostering ethical behaviors. Assessment methods must evaluate students' understanding and critical thinking instead of simple information replication. Applying various assessment formats like presentations and group work can discourage contract cheating. Educators significantly influence academic integrity. Offering professional development opportunities equips them to detect and prevent contract cheating, cultivating a culture of academic integrity. The issue of contract cheating necessitates collaborative efforts from Pakistani higher education institutions to inculcate a culture of academic integrity. Moreover, approval and implementation of HEC’s draft policy concerning the prevailing issues are proved to be a turning point in Higher Education. By concentrating on multidimensional strategies, institutions can not only address contract cheating concerns but also nurture ethical scholars and professionals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr. Anjum Zia, Marium Masud Khan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/355 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of ICTs on the Academic Performances of Students https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/287 <p>Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has emerged as a dominant force significantly influencing various aspects of human activities. Its profound impact has brought about a revolution in the methods of teaching and learning, fundamentally altering the way people engage in education, work, and leisure. This research delves into the repercussions of ICTs on students' academic performance. To attain this objective, a survey approach was employed to collect primary data from students attending six universities in Lahore: LC, GC, PU, FC, UMT, and Comsats. The data collection instrument utilized was an online questionnaire survey. With the inclusion of both male and female students, the findings were generalized to encompass both genders. The outcomes reveal a conspicuous disparity in the utilization of ICTs between public and private sector universities. Additionally, it highlights a detrimental impact on the academic pursuits of students attending public sector universities when adequate ICT resources are lacking. These findings emphasize the importance of incorporating ICT tools and resources into educational settings to enhance learning outcomes, particularly in the public sector, where access to such technologies may be limited.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>ICTs, academic performance, private sector, public sector</em></p> Dr. Zaeem Yasin, Dr. Shazia Ismail Toor , Syeda Kanwal Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Professional Research in Social Sciences https://ojs.mul.edu.pk/index.php/JPRSS/article/view/287 Sat, 30 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000